10 Key Points of Reformed Theology

10 Key Points of Reformed Theology

Dr. Trey Talley, Lead Pastor and Elder
Author of The Missing Gospel of Modern Christianity
On October 31st, the thoughts of many are on candy and costumes, but on this day in 1517, the thoughts of one man were centered on theological clarity. On this day, just over 500 years ago, Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Thesis to the door of the Wittenberg Chapel. These were 95 points of disagreement with the teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He had hoped that this would lead to some great discussions within the Roman Catholic Church; however, (long story short) Luther was ordered not to challenge the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, excommunicated by the Pope, and even had a price placed upon his capture (dead or alive), by the Roman Catholic Church.

What did Luther say to cause such a harsh response?

Primarily it had to do with the fact that he believed the Bible to be the supreme standard of truth. The problem was that the Bible was being hidden from the people. It was unlawful to possess a Bible or to preach, teach, or even speak from the Bible in a language other than Latin, which had become a language reserved only for scholars. The inaccessibility of the contents of the Bible meant that over 99.9% of the people had no way of knowing what was in the Bible. As Luther entered a monastery and was allowed access to a Bible, he was shocked to discover that the Roman Catholic Church’s core teachings were not in the Bible. There was nothing in the Bible of purgatory, a Pope, the Treasury of Merit, praying to Saints, relics, or repetitions of the Hail Mary.
Most important, Luther discovered that the Bible taught a salvation that was by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone, to the glory of God alone. Luther was a brilliant man, whose most important work was the translation and distribution of the Bible to the people in their native language. Luther went on to teach and write for many years, but here are some key points that Luther and the other early Reformers taught that can be easily remembered known as the Five Solas. The Five Solas are based upon five Latin words with the Latin equivalent of the English word “alone” placed before them. These are meant to be five quick reference points to the theological difference between the Roman Catholic Church and the Reformers.

The Five Solas

  1. Scripture Alone (Sola Scriptura) – The Bible is the sole written revelation of God, our only infallible rule for faith and life, and alone can bind the conscience of believers absolutely. No Popes, Councils, Priests, traditions of the church, organized, or unorganized religion has authority over the Bible. God is the Supreme authority, and His Word bears His authority. It is our role to submit to the Word that He has authorized. Psalm 119:9-16; Matthew 4:4; 2 Timothy 3:16
  2. Grace Alone (Sola Gratia) – Our salvation rests solely on the work of God’s grace. There is nothing a person can do to earn, work, or achieve salvation. Salvation is the unmerited favor of God given to a person due to the perfect work of Jesus Christ. Romans 2:4, 3:20-26; Ephesians 1:3-8, 2:8-10
  3. Faith Alone (Sola Fide) – Justification is by faith alone. By God’s free grace, the righteousness of Jesus Christ is imputed (given) to us by faith and is the sole ground of our acceptance by God, by which our sins are pardoned. This faith consists of a knowledge of the Gospel, believing the Gospel to be true, and a trusting in the Gospel alone for one’s salvation. Romans 5:1; Galatians 2:16, 3:6-11; Ephesians 2:8-10
  4. Christ Alone (Solus Christus) – Jesus Christ is the only mediator through Whose work we are redeemed. There is no one else who is qualified to mediate between you and God. This exclusion includes Mary the mother of Jesus, all “saints,” or anyone else other than Jesus Christ. John 14:6; John 3:16; Colossians 1:13-20; 1 Timothy 2:5-7
  5. To God Alone Be Glory (Soli Deo Gloria) – Salvation is of God and has been accomplished by God; therefore, to God alone belongs the glory. Since mankind is dead in his sin, and deserves nothing but the wrath of God for rebelling against God, any mercy bestowed upon sinners in salvation should result in giving the glory to God, and Him alone. Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 10:31; Ephesians 3:21; Colossians 3:17; 1 Peter 4:11


These Five Solas reveal a clear, concise theology that says, “We believe that we are saved by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone, to God alone be the glory, and we rely on the Bible alone for our source of authority.”

The theology of the early reformers such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, William Tyndale, etc. spread quickly as Bibles, and Bible-based teachings began to be produced in mass due to the printing press.

However, in the early 1600s, a man named Jacobus Arminius went against the Reformers teaching. The followers of Arminius created an acronym that stood for their points of disagreement. However, the acronym came to be loved by those to whom it was meant to mock, due to its truthfulness and ease of remembering. The acronym T.U.L.I.P, along with the Five Solas, became an easy way to remember the key theological points of the Reformation.


Total Depravity – Often referred to as Total Inability. Every human being is born a sinner and can do nothing in and of himself to right his sinful position before God. People are born sinners and actively pursue sinful behavior. People are spiritually dead in their sins and cannot make themselves come to life spiritually. Mankind is a slave to sin and cannot set himself free. John 6:44; Ephesians 2:1-10; Revelation 3:9-20
Unconditional Election – God, not man, is sovereign over all things, including salvation. Salvation is not based on a condition that we have met. It is based on God’s own free sovereign choice. We, as humans, do not contribute to our salvation. Romans 8:30; Romans 9; Ephesians 1:4-5
Limited Atonement- Also referred to as Definite Atonement or Specific Atonement. Jesus Christ died only for those whom the Father had given Him. His work was perfect, and all those for whom He died will be saved, because He has taken the wrath that they deserved. Jesus died in the place of all the elect taking, paying for their sin, and making peace between them and God. John 10:11-14; John 17:2-9; Romans 8:30
Irresistible Grace- All those for whom the Son died will come to Him for salvation. They will be made willing to come to God on their day of salvation. God regenerates them, bringing them to life, causing right belief and right affections for Him. Since no one seeks after God, God supernaturally seeks and saves all who are His. This is purely an act of His unmerited favor towards His elect. John 6:37; Philippians 1:29; Titus 3:5
Perseverance of the Saints- God guards the salvation of his elect. Everyone the Son died for will persevere and enter into heaven. Both the beginning and the preserving of their salvation is the work of God. There is no power in existence that can remove the believer out of the saving hand of God. John 6:37-38; Ephesians 1:14-15; 1 Peter 1:3-5
Together these ten points are the heart of the Reformation. The Reformers did not create these doctrines. Instead, the Reformers were simply returning to the actual teaching of the Word of God.
This Halloween, don’t just think of costumes and candy, consider Christ, and be thankful for those who cared enough to risk their lives to teach the truth of the Bible.


What does coming to the front have to do with salvation?

What does coming to the front have to do with salvation?

“Come to Jesus!”, “Come now!”, “Come to the front, Jesus is waiting here for you.”, “Get up and come quickly!”, “He died for you. The least you can do is take a few steps towards Him.”
This style of evangelistic plea has become the focal point of almost every major evangelistic outreach of our day, and the common end of most Sunday worship services. But, are such altar calls and invitations Biblically warranted?


In the middle of the nineteenth century, Charles Finney, a traveling evangelist with piercing eyes, tremendous personality, mesmerizing communication skills, and very little biblical knowledge, began the time of invitation that would soon come to be practiced at virtually every church in America. Finney became known for his incredible ability to stir up large audiences of people and get them to respond to his messages by beckoning them to come forward during his sermons. To many, it appeared that Finney had found a new method of evangelism that was extremely effective, and with the call to the front, results could be seen immediately.
Finney was successfully drawing massive audiences and seeing thousands of people come to the front for salvation. Surely this must have been a great move of God, right? Sadly, Finney’s bigger-than-life personality and his magnetic ability to get people out of their seats to come to the front caused many to overlook the fact that his doctrine was fundamentally flawed.
Finney had distorted the gospel of God, substituted his own version of the gospel and was actually calling on people to believe and respond to “another gospel” that was not from God. Finney did not believe that man was born sinful and required a Savior for the forgiveness of sins. He rejected the biblical truth that we are saved by Christ’s righteousness being applied to us. Finney also did not believe in the substitutionary atonement of Jesus Christ, nor did he see any need for it. He believed that it was impossible for Jesus Christ to die for the sins of others.1 He even went as far as to teach that Jesus Christ’s death on the cross was just a great example of selflessness, but in no way brought about salvation.2 Finney writes, “It is true, that the atonement, of itself, does not secure the salvation of anyone.3 He had created a Christ who was nothing more than a moral example for people to follow, but Whose work did not and could not save anyone. In fact, Christ’s righteousness, Finney says, “could do no more than justify himself. It could never be imputed to us . . .”4
However, the altar call, which was created by a man who rejected the true gospel, has become so popular, that modern Christians just assume that this is the way that it has always been since the time of Christ. The invitation system is so prevalent that one would be hard-pressed to find a church that does not use some form of Finney’s “altar call” methodology.


So, what about you? Have you ever wondered what is at the front of the church that is not at the back or side of the church for salvation? Truthfully, there is no square footage of a church that someone must go to be saved. God could save a person no matter if they walked to the back, side, front, or even remain seated. Yet, countless pastors and evangelist promote the front as the place to come to be saved as if it is a means of salvation. What does walking forward have to do with one believing the gospel of God? Does physical movement somehow aid in salvation? Is there some connection between being saved by Christ and walking forward while music is playing at the end of church service?
Many professing Christians describe their salvation with such an action as “going to the front,” or “walking the aisle” as well. Such Christians often speak of their physical response of “going forward” as if such activity is an essential element of their salvation. This is a common mistake of Christians living in a “come to the front” era. In supposedly, telling others about our testimony, we often put the emphasis on the walk forward, instead of the message of the gospel. To an unbeliever, it would be easy for them to assume that “going forward” is what a person does to be saved.


While the altar call may be a widespread practice today, there is no scriptural support for such a practice. A quick search of the sermons of Christ and the Apostles shows that the whole “come to the front method” was never used. This methodology is entirely foreign to the Word of God. Many evangelistic sermons are recorded for us in the book of Acts, yet not once is there a call at the end to come to the front. The people are never told to come to the front for salvation; instead, they are told to believe unto salvation.
In his book, The Invitation System, Iain Murray presents the following points to consider regarding the high-pressure methodology of the “Invitation” as used in the modern church:
  1. The invitation system, because it represents an outward response as connected with ‘receiving Christ,’ institutes a condition of salvation which Christ never appointed.
  2. Because the call to come forward is given as though it were a divine command, those who respond are given reason to believe that they are doing something commendable before God, while those who do not are falsely supposed to be disobeying Him.
  3. By treating two distinct issues, ‘come to Christ’ and ‘come to the front’ as though they were one, the tendency of the invitation to mislead the unconverted in regard to their duty. The real issue is as stated in John 6:20 ‘This is the work of God, that ye believe on him who he hath sent.’5


That being the case, does the “come to the front method” of evangelism add a non-biblical step into salvation? It is difficult to see how the modern emphasis on coming forward would not be seen as contributing in some degree to a person’s salvation. In fact, I have commonly heard preachers and evangelists say things like, “If there are 100 steps to your salvation, Jesus will take 99, but you must take the first one.”, or “Come now, Jesus is waiting here for you, all you have to do is come Him.” It is easy to see how such words could lead to the belief that walking forward is contributing to one’s salvation. Could such an invitation be seen as adding to the gospel? Could it even be adding human effort (works) as an essential component of the gospel? Some might not believe that “going forward” is that much work, but if it is contributing in any way even just one percent, how can that not be a mixture of God’s grace and human effort?


No one is saved because he or she went forward during an invitation, but some are saved despite their going forward during an invitation. It is possible that some who “come to the front” have genuinely heard the gospel and believed in the gospel for their salvation. Perhaps they understand that walking to the front is not adding to their salvation or required for salvation at all. And maybe they have just followed the speaker’s appeal to walk forward now that they are saved. If their faith is in the Jesus Christ of Scripture, then they are saved no matter if they walked forward, backward, or just stayed seated.
However, it is also possible that a person could not have heard the gospel, not believed in the gospel, and still walked forward under the compulsion of the speaker, peer pressure of friends, or an entirely wrong view of what is needed for salvation. Clearly, such a person is not saved; instead, they have just gone for a walk and gotten a bit of exercise, which has most likely lead to a false conversion. The point is, that genuine salvation and “coming to the front” are not synonymous.
As you reflect on your salvation, perhaps you too made a trip down the aisle. However, this does not mean that you are or are not saved. We should never look to a “come forward” event in our lives as proof of our salvation. It is good for professing Christians to, as the Apostle Paul says, “Examine yourselves, to see whether you are in the faith. Test yourselves.”6 Paul was not calling on the Corinthians to reflect on a time when they walked forward as a test of their salvation, but he is calling on them to make sure that they believe in Jesus Christ and what He has done to provide salvation.
There is no biblical support that a person needs to come forward to be saved. Many preachers and evangelists act as if coming to the front is a biblical command; however, Jesus nor His Apostles ever used such a practice. With such great emphasis placed on the visual act of going forward, many people tend to confuse their physical activity with the spiritual action of salvation. We, as Christians, should keep this in mind when we evangelize or share our testimonies with others. Even if we did walk an aisle, or go to the front, during an invitation, we must be careful that we do not make such an action a part of the gospel that we are proclaiming to others. The gospel’s call is not to walk forward but to repent, believe, and walk in obedience to Christ.
1. Charles G. Finney, Finney’s Systematic Theology, ed. James Harris Fairchild (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976), 320-322.
2. Ibid., 209.
3. Ibid., 217.
4. Charles G. Finney, Finney’s Systematic Theology, ed. James Harris Fairchild (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976), 320-322.
5. Iain Hamish Murray, The Invitation System (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1973), 26.
6. 2 Corinthians 13:5


Is belief necessary for salvation?

Is belief necessary for salvation?

Dr. Trey Talley, Lead Pastor and Elder
Author of The Missing Gospel of Modern Christianity
When professing Christians are asked about their salvation, their mind often goes to a time when they walked an aisle at church, raised a hand, made a decision, said the sinner’s prayer, were baptized or joined a church. While such activities are often relied upon as proof of salvation, the truth of the matter is that such activities are no guarantee of salvation. For instance, it is possible that a person could walk an aisle at church, raise a hand, make a decision, say the sinner’s prayer, be baptized, join a church and still be just as unsaved as a person who had done none of these things. Can people claim to be Christians, yet still be on their way to hell? The answer is, “Yes.” So, if these things do not provide the surety of salvation, then what does? This leads to some critical questions, such as “How can a person be saved?”, “How do you know if you are actually saved?”, and “How do I check on the salvation of others?”
The Apostle Paul writes that the gospel “is the power of God unto salvation for everyone who believes…”1 In other words, belief in the gospel is essential for a person to be saved. This means that belief in the gospel is not a secondary or tertiary matter when it comes to determining one’s salvation, it is primary.
The word believe is basic, yet descriptive of what one’s response should be upon hearing the gospel. It points to the fact that the gospel must be accepted as presented in Scripture, and to reject that information is to remain a non-believer. The English word believe is most commonly translated from the Greek word pisteuó, which means, “to think to be true, to be persuaded of, to credit, place confidence in.”2 Keeping such a definition in mind helps us to understand what it means to “believe the gospel.” Take these scriptures for example:
But to all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God. (John 1:12)
… whoever believes in him may have eternal life. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:15-16)
Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God. (John 3:18)
… these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name. (John 20:31)
But many of those who had heard the word believed, and the number of the men came to about five thousand. (Acts 4:4)
Now the full number of those who believed were of one heart and soul . . . (Acts 4:32)
But when they believed Philip as he preached good news about the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. (Acts 8:12)
… a great number of both Jews and Greeks believed. But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds against the brothers. (Acts 14:1-2)
For what does the Scripture say? ‘Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness.’ (Romans 4:3)
Whether then it was I or they, so we preach and so you believed. (1 Corinthians 15:11)
For we who have believed enter that rest . . . (Hebrews 4:3)
I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life. (1 John 5:13)
As you can see, the God’s word puts great emphasis on belief. However, before calling people to “believe,” we must first give them the foundation–or the Who and What–in which they are to believe. People cannot just believe in anything they wish and be saved by it. The belief must be placed in the right object, or better yet, the right person. Regarding the empty call to “believe” that some Christians were issuing, Charles Spurgeon wrote:
I have sometimes thought when I have heard addresses from some revival brethren who had kept on saying time after time, ‘Believe, believe, believe,’ that I should like to have known for myself what it was we were to believe in order to our salvation. There is, I fear a great deal of vagueness and crudeness about this matter.3
It is far easier to command people just to believe, but we must never forget that there is a message that must be connected to that belief for true salvation to occur. A call to believe without giving a person what they need to believe is futile. Belief, no matter how strong it is, in anything besides the person and work of Jesus Christ amounts to a faith that is entirely ineffective in bringing about salvation.
God has given us the message which is required of us to believe, and that message is centered on Jesus Christ. The Apostle John is abundantly clear that the gospel is all about Jesus, and it is only belief in Him that saves. For example, in John 3, he writes that “whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.”4 He then writes about the condemnation of those who do not believe, “Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God.”5 At the close of his gospel, John summarizes his entire message by stating the purpose of his writing, “these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.”6

1. Romans 1:16: All Bible references are from The Holy Bible: English Standard Version Containing the Old and New Testaments: ESV. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2007)
2. Joseph Henry Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Baker Book House, 1977), entry for pisteuó.
3. Murray, The Invitation System, 33
4. John 3:16
5. John 3:18
6. John 20:31




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